X.  Ancestors Living in the Northern Neck in the 1600s and 1700s – Ball, Carter, Champe, Claughton, Cralle, Garner, and Washington

 

1  Introduction.  In this section, I will provide details related to the following male ancestor family names who lived in the Northern Neck in the 1600s and 1700s:  Ball; Carter; Champe; Claughton; Cralle (Crawley); Garner; and Washington.   I will also provide details on Northern Neck female ancestor family names such as: Armstead; Fox; Kenner; Ludlow; Matthew; Pope; Rodham; Spelman; and Warner

 

2.  Ball.   My great grandfather’s (Charles A. Jenkins; 1850-1927) ancestor link to the Northern Neck is through his mother (Rosalie O. Carter Jenkins – 1818-1853), who was a descendant of Elizabeth (Betty) Lewis (1765-1830), Rosalie’s grandmother.   Elizabeth (Betty) Lewis’s grandmother was Mary Ball, born in Lancaster County.   As is well known, and details extensively available, Mary Ball was the mother of President George Washington, as well as the mother of Elizabeth Washington Lewis (1773-1797), Elizabeth (Betty) Washington’s mother.

 

The first in this family of Balls living in the Northern Neck was apparently William Ball (1615-1680), who immigrated to the Northern Neck from England after 1615, and dying, in what became Lancaster County, in 1680.  William was Mary Ball’s grandfather.  Several generations of Balls would live in Lancaster County through the 1700s, in the area known as Millenback, on the west side of the Corrotoman River.  Joseph Ball, William’s son, was Mary Ball’s father.  A William Ball IV, who ran a joiner and silversmith shop, died in 1742.  A William Ball V did poorly, abandoning his family and dying at sea in 1760.

 

Many Balls were recognized as prominent community members, serving in various governmental positions through the generations.   A Spencer Mottram Ball was in the House of Burgesses as was a William Ball.  A James Ball was a justice of the peace in 1722.  Several Balls were officers in the county militia and one Ball served during the War of Independence.   At least one Ball served as county sheriff and one as coroner.

 

The Balls were a  strong supporter of the St. Mary’s Whitechapel Church, which still exists.  William Ball IV (1676-1744) was a close friend of Robert Carter (1663-1732), whose plantation was close to the Balls along the Corrotoman River that flows into the Rappahannock River, not far from the Chesapeake Bay.

 

Hannah Atherold (1615-1695), possibly born in Suffolk, England, was married to William Ball (1615-1680), and they were the parents of Joseph Ball (1645-1711).   Mary Bennet Johnson, who married Joseph Ball, and were the parents of Mary Ball, possibly came to the Northern Neck as an indentured servant.

 

Ball probate/will records, examined by others, indicate that several Ball descendants in the middle 1700s identified large number of forks, knives, and spoons, and similar items as personal property, which apparently is considered by historians as a good indicator of having done well financially.   Many Balls were slave owners.   On these financial characteristics, and the community records of service discussed above, I would place the Lancaster Balls in the second level of the Class Scheme (Class Level Two) I outlined in Section IV Culture, Subsection 2, Class Structure.  This second level consists of yeoman planters, higher-level land owners, and higher service providers.

 

3.  Carter.   My great grandfather’s (Charles A. Jenkins - 1850-1927) ancestor link to the Northern Neck is through his mother (Rosalie O. Carter Jenkins – 1818-1853).  Rosalie was a descendant of Charles Carter (1765-1827) (her grandfather).   Charles Carter was a grandson of John Carter III (1689-1742), born in Lancaster County.  The first Carter in this family of Carters was apparently John Carter (1613-1669), who immigrated from England to the Virginia Colony, dying in Lancaster County.  John Carter reportedly was the first to be awarded a land patent on the Northern Neck, in 1642.

 

In 1684, John Carter (1613-1669) led a force of 170 men from Lancaster, Northumberland, and Westmoreland militias to put down Indian uprisings that occurred in that year.

 

As is well known, Carter was a prominent Northern Neck family name.  John Carter III’s father, Robert Carter (1663-1732), was a major landowner in the Northern Neck, and elsewhere in the Virginia Colony, and descendent Carters were numerous, with many of them large landowners growing tobacco, and later towards the end of the 1700s, grain and corn.  The 1600s and 1700s Carters had many children, so that today there are probably hundreds of thousands of descendants from the 1600s and 1700s Carters.  

 

Robert Carter III (1728-1804), the grandson of Robert Carter (1663-1732), stood out in the late 1700s in the Northern Neck for his involvement with religion and his attitudes toward slavery.  As mentioned in Section IV Culture, Subsection 4, Religion, beginning in the middle of the 1700s, associated with the “Great Awakening”, “separatists” groups, such as Baptists, Methodists, and others, challenged the Church of England’s position as “the church” and the authority on religion.   Robert Carter III participated in this separatist movement, eventually becoming a prominent Baptist.

 

Robert Carter III believed slavery to be immoral, which led him to pursue a process of freeing his many slaves, against much opposition from other Northern Neck residents who benefited from slavery and wanted it to continue.  Eventually hundreds of Carter’s slaves were freed.

 

Robert Carter III was also an innovative, successful businessman, owning many income-producing mills, salt mines, and schooners.  He had business and social ties outside of the Northern Neck, e.g., in  Baltimore.  He seemed to be a man before his times.  Carter lived mostly at Nomini Hall in Westmoreland County.

 

London Carter (1710-1778), a son of Robert Carter (1663-1732), lived in the Northern Neck’s Richmond County.  He paid for the 1748 construction of a courthouse in Warsaw in Richmond County, that is still being used today by the county, one of the few buildings standing in the Northern Neck built in the 1700s.  See Section V, Property for more on 1600s and 1700s Northern Neck buildings, including surviving courthouses.

 

John Carter’s (1613-1669) fourth wife was Sarah Ludlow (1635-1668).  Sarah, the mother of Robert Carter (1663-1732), was a member of an English family with connections to the English royals.  A Ludlow ancestor was an aid to a king in the late 1400s and was a member of Parliament.  Sarah immigrated to the Virginia Colony with siblings and settled along the Rappahannock River, where she likely met John Carter.  Because of her family’s “royal connections”, the immigration to the Virginia Colony could have been in response to the English Civil War and the overthrow of the royals in the 1650s.  An uncle, Roger Ludlow (1590-1664), help establish the Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay colonies.

 

Robert Carter’s (1663-1732) first wife, Judith Armistead (1665-1698), was the mother of John Carter III (1689-1742).  Judith was from a well-to-do planter family living in Gloucester County (now Matthews County), across the Rappahannock River from the Northern Neck’s Lancaster County, where Robert lived.   Judith’s sister, Elizabeth Armistead (1667-1716), married Ralph Wormeley III (1650-1703).  In 1699-1700, Robert Carter (1663-1732) co-owned a 170-ton ship with a William Armistead.  William was possibly Judith’s brother.  Judith’s father, John Armistead (1630-1695), represented Gloucester County in the House of Burgesses in the 1680s.  John Armistead, who was married to Judith Bowles (1649-1695), settled along the Pinkatank River in what became known as the Hesse Plantation, about 25 miles south of where Robert Carter lived in Lancaster County.

 

John Armistead’s (1630-1695) parents were William Armistead (1610-1660) and Anne Ellis Armistead (1611-1671), from Yorkshire, England.   An interesting fact about Anne Ellis Armistead, at least to me, is that she is buried in the graveyard of the Saint John Episcopal Church in Hampton, Virginia.   Saint John is reportedly the oldest, still operating parish in the United States, founded in 1610 as a Church of England parish.

 

Many Carters served in county- and colony-level government positions (including acting governor, House of Burgesses, and Virginia Council), as well as the militia.   Many of them were sent to England for schooling.   Members of these Carter families were among the top land and slave owners in the Virginia Colony.  John Carter (1613-1669) brought many indentured servants to the Northern Neck.  There can be no doubt that these Carters would be in the Class Structure Level One, Large Land Owners (see Section IV, Culture, Subsection2, Class Structure for my Class Structure scheme).

 

4.  Champe.  My great grandfather’s (Charles A. Jenkins - 1850-1927) ancestor link to the Northern Neck is through his mother (Rosalie O. Carter Jenkins – 1818-1853).  Rosalie was a descendant of Charles Carter (1765-1827) (her grandfather), whose grandfather was John Champe, Jr. (1698-1763).  John Champe Jr. was born and died in King George County.   King George County was established from Richmond County in 1720, being the last county formed from the area considered as the Northern Neck.  Charles Carter’s (1765-1827) mother was Sarah Sallie Champe (1740-1814), a daughter of John Champe, Jr.

 

John Champe, Jr. (1698-1763), the son of John Champe, Sr. (1670-1740) (born in Westmoreland County), was a wealthy tobacco-growing landowner in King George County, owning dozens of slaves.  John at various times served as King George County’s sheriff, as a Dumfries township trustee, and in the militia as a colonel.  John was an acquaintance of George Washington, exchanging correspondence with him on occasions and hosting him as a guest at John’s Lamb’s Creek Plantation.

 

The Lamb’s Creek Plantation site is about three miles south of the Potomac River, three miles north of the Rappahannock River, and ten miles east of Fredericksburg.  Near the plantation is the Lamb’s Creek Church, built in the 1770s (the church is still standing – see Section V, Properties, Subsection 5, Churches for more on the 1700s Northern Neck church buildings still standing).  John Champe, Jr. also served as a church warden at Lamb’s Creek Church.

 

John Champe, Jr. married Jane Thornton (1707-1767), from King George County.  Their daughter, Sarah Sallie Champe (1740-1814), married Edward Hill Carter (1726-1792) ((son of John Carter III (1689-1742) – see the Carter subsection above for more on John Carter III)).  Edward Hill and Sarah Sallie Champe Carter lived in Albemarle County, Virginia on a plantation called Blenheim.  A son of Edward Hill Carter and Sarah Sallie Champe Carter, Charles Carter (1765-1827), links the Lancaster Carters to my great grandfather, Charles A. Jenkins (1850-1927).

 

John Champe, Jr. and his family members interacted socially with Robert Carter’s (1663-1732) descendants, with two of John’s daughters marrying grandsons of Robert Carter, including Sarah Champe marriage to Edward Hill Carter.  Champe family members also interacted socially with Washingtons, including at least one marriage, with John Champe, Jr.’s daughter, Jane, marrying Mary Ball Washington’s son, Samuel.  This a good example of the 1700s social patterns that existed in the Northern Neck with members of the top social class tending to socialize extensively with others in the top social class.

 

John Champe, Sr. (1670-1740) likely knew Lawrence Washington (1659-1698) and other residents living around Pope’s Creek in Westmoreland County in the late 1600s, where John Champe, Sr. then lived.  By the 1730s, John Champe, Sr. had left Westmoreland County to live with his son, John Champe, Jr. at Lamb’s Creek Plantation in King George County.

 

Records suggest that John Champe, Sr. may have married an Elizabeth Pope, who was likely a descendant of Nathaniel Pope (1603-1709).  Nathaniel Pope was one of the first settlers in Westmoreland County, and one of its leaders. 

 

Based on the above, I would place the John Champe Jr. family in the Class Structure Level One, Large Land Owners (see the Section IV, Culture, Subsection 2, Class Structure for my Class Structure scheme).

 

5.  Claughton.   My great grandmother’s (Amelia B Crawley, 1859-1937) ancestor link to the Northern Neck is through her grandfather (Thomas Garner Crawley, 1787-1841).  Thomas was born in Northumberland County, Northern Neck and died in Halifax County, Virginia. 

 

Thomas’s mother was Elizabeth M Claughton (1766-1808), born in Northumberland County and died in Halifax County.  The Claughton family started living in Northumberland in the 1640s.  James Claughton (1629-1698) and his family was one of several families that immigrated from Maryland in the 1640s due to the families dissatisfaction with Maryland events (see Section IX, Security, Subsection 2, 1600s for more on Maryland tensions, leading to several families immigrating to the Northern Neck).

 

Sometime after 1787, Elizabeth M Claughton (1766-1808) and her husband, Thomas Hull Cralle (1766-1815), migrated from Northumberland County to Halifax County in southwest Virginia, along the North Carolina state line.  The migration was likely after 1787 because Elizabeth and Thomas’ son, Thomas Garner Crawley (1787-1841), was born in Northumberland County in 1787.  Along with the migration, the last name spelling, Cralle – a French name – was Americanized to the spelling Crawley.   Thomas Hull Cralle (1766-1815) was the descendent of French Huguenots who immigrated to the Northern Neck in the 1600s.

 

John Foushee (1697-1773), another French Huguenot ancestor living in the Northern Neck, also migrated to Halifax County, where he died in 1773.  John’s mother, Mary Sarah Cralle (1670-1724), indicates that John was connected to the Cralles.  John was also connected to the Claughtons – his great granddaughter, Elizabeth Claughton is the Elizabeth in the above paragraph, who migrates with Thomas Hull Cralle to Halifax County sometime after 1787.  Likely Elizabeth knew that her great grandfather, John Foushee, migrated to Halifax County, and this might have play a part in Thomas Hull and Elizabeth’s migration there also.

 

The James Claughton (1629-1698), referred to in the first paragraph above under Claughton, was involved in developing a church parish in the Coan River area of Northumberland County.  He was referred to as a small farmer in surviving records.  At one time, James had an Indian working for him, who he paid in tobacco.   Records have referred to a Claughton Creek, perhaps a creek associated with the Coan River (no present-day Claughton Creek could be found).

 

John Claughton (1695-1726), James’ son, served as a justice of the peace in 1714.  John had a son (1696-1773) and a grandson (1730-1815), both named Richard and both living in Northumberland County.  The 1696-1773 Richard Claughton was married to Mary Lampkin (1698-1780) and owned a mill with a James Lampkin, likely Mary’s brother or father.

 

In the 1780s, a Pemberton Claughton was put on a committee that oversaw trade restrictions with England.  Pemberton was a farmer in 1782 owning about 350 acres.  A 1787-built house, still standing in the Coan River area, of modest size, was constructed by a William Claughton.

 

Based on the above, I would place the 1600s-1700s Claughton family in the Class Level Three, ordinary planters, lower-level land owners, and lower-level service providers. (See Section IV, Culture, Subsection 2, Class Structure for an explanation of my class structure levels.)

 

6.  Cralle.    My great grandmother’s (Amelia B Crawley; 1859-1937) ancestor link to the Northern Neck is through her grandfather (Thomas Garner Crawley, 1787-1841).  Thomas was born in Northumberland County, Northern Neck and died in Halifax County, Virginia.  Although Thomas was born in Northumberland County, he moved to Halifax County, Virginia (where he died).   His parents, Thomas Hull (1766-1815) and Elizabeth Claughton Cralle (1766-1808),  migrated from the Northern Neck to Halifax County sometime after 1787 (Thomas Garner’s birthdate in Northumberland County).  Thomas Garner Crawley had Cralle ancestors living in the Northern Neck going back to the middle 1600s: Thomas Hull Cralle (1766-1815); John Cralle (1724-1778); Thomas Cralle (1695-1726); John Cralle (1660-1728); and Thomas Cralle (1637-1726). The Cralles (a French name) were the descendants of French Huguenots who immigrated to the Northern Neck in the 1600s.  Crawley is an Americanized version of Cralle.

 

During the 1600s and 1700s, Cralles were prominent members of the Northumberland County community.  Positions that Cralles held included: sheriff; justice of the peace; overseer (surveyor) of roads; on a committee overseeing trade restrictions with England; and attendee at 1776 Virginia conventions dealing with difficulties with England.  Cralles served in the county militia.  Cralles were involved in founding a Baptist Church – the Gibeon Baptist Church – which still exists, about three miles west of Callao in Northumberland County.

 

The present-day Gibeon Church is located in an area with several other churches, remote from populations centers. I do not think it would make sense to locate today these many churches where they are located at.  This suggests that when these churches were founded, many of them in the 1700s, the population densities in the churches’ area were much higher than they are today.  This makes sense considering that they were likely many smaller farms, all with large families, and with indentured servants and apprentices.  Even though the land area is the same, there were a lot more people on that land then, justifying the churches then, but not now.  In a sense, these churches represent an archaeological signal – the present of a much greater population at some time in the past.

 

Thomas Cralle’s (1695-1726) parents were John Cralle (1660-1728) and Anne Matthew (1678-1728).  Anne’s father was a Thomas Matthew who was involved in a 1675 dispute with Indians in Northumberland County, which played a part in escalations preceding Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 (see Section IX, Security, Subsection 2, 1600s for more on Bacon’s Rebellion).  Sometime after the part he played related to escalations preceding Bacon’s Rebellion, Thomas Matthew returned to England, where he died  in the early 1700s, but not before writing an article on his recollections of the Bacon Rebellion period.  Apparently, this article has been useful to historians studying Bacon’s Rebellion.

 

Thomas Cralle (1695-1726) was married to Hannah Kenner (1695-1784).  Hannah ancestors included well-known 1600s Northern Neck family names: Kenner; Fox; Rodham; and Ball.  Descendants with these names appear frequently in the 1700s with respect to Northern Neck affairs. 

 

Initial Kenner immigrants from England settled in the Lower Norfolk County, Virginia before relocating to the Northern Neck.  By the end of the 1600s, early 1700s, a Rodham Kenner (1671-1706) was considered one of the wealthiest planters in Northumberland County, with several indentured servants, apprentices, and slaves.  Rodham Kenner was elected to serve in the House of Burgesses in the late 1690s.  He was an officer in the militia.  During the 1700s, Kenners continued to participate in community affairs including: as sheriff; as a justice of the peace; a signer of the Leedstown Resolutions (see Section IX, Security, Subsection 3, 1700s for more on the Leedstown Resolutions); and as an attendee at the 1774 Virginia “August Convention”, held to consider trading difficulties with England.  The August Convention was the first of five Virginia Conventions held in the 1774-1776 time period to consider Virginia’s response to events happening in the colonies related to independence from England.

 

Hannah Kenner was the daughter of Rodham Kenner (1671-1706) and Hannah Fox (1671-1717).  Hannah Fox was the daughter of David Fox (1647-1699), a prominent member of the Lancaster County community.  He was a trustee, along with Robert Carter (1663-1732), in a Virginia Colony government effort to develop a planned township, Queenstown, on the  Rappahannock River (an effort that did not succeed).  Fox was also a member of the House of Burgesses in the 1680s. 

 

And Hannah Kenner’s grandfather was Matthew Rodham, an early Northern Neck settler from Accomack County on Virginia’s Eastern Shore.  The Rodham name will be well-known in the 1700s in Northumberland County.  The final of Hannah Kenner four well-known 1600s ancestor names – Ball (the other three being Kenner, Fox, and Rodham) was written about above as the first name in this Section.

 

Thomas and Hannah Kenner Cralle’s son, John Cralle (1724-1778) was married to Spelman Garner.  The Garner family ancestors are written about next.  John is believed to have been a member of a Northumberland committee overseeing trade with England.  Many Virginia counties set up such committees in 1774.  He was Northumberland County’s delegate to the 1776 Fifth Virginia Convention.  The 1776 Fifth Virginia Convention was the last of five conventions held in the 1774 to 1776 time period to consider Virginia’s response to various events happening in the colonies related to the independent movement from England.  The fifth convention declared Virginia as an independent state and produced Virginia’s first constitution and the Virginia Declaration of  Rights.  Each Virginia county sent one delegate to the fifth convention.  John Cralle served as a sergeant in the 5th Virginia Regiment fighting in the Revolutionary War.  The regiment saw action in New Jersey (Trenton, Princeton) and Pennsylvania (Brandywine, Germantown).  While the regiment was in winter encampment at Valley Forge, John died on February 1, 1778.

 

Based on the above, I would place the 1600s-1700s Cralle family in the Class Level Two, yeoman planters, lower-level land owners, and higher-level service providers.  (See Section IV, Culture, Subsection 2, Class Structure for an explanation of my class structure levels.)

7.  Garner.  My great grandmother’s (Amelia B Crawley; 1859-1937) ancestor link to the Northern Neck is through her grandfather Thomas Garner Crawley (1787-1841), whose grandfather was Parish Garner II (1705-1761), born in Westmoreland County and died in Northumberland County.   Parish Garner II’s ancestors had lived in the Northern Neck since the 1640s.  Parish Garner II’s ancestors were: Parish Garner Sr. (1674-1718); John Garner (1634-1702); and Richard Garner (1594-1643).

 

John Garner (1634-1702) reportedly came to the Northern Neck as an indentured servant.  In 1660, he married Susanna Keene (1640-1716).  They had Parish Garner Sr. (1674-1718), who married Elizabeth Parker (1676-1718).  Parish and Elizabeth had Parish Garner II (1705-1761), who married Frances Spelman (1717-1799) in 1730.  Parish Garner (1705-1761) was a vestryman in 1758 in St. Stephen’s Parish, Northumberland County.  A Garner’s Creek is located near Route 680 (Cherry Point Road) in Northumberland County.

 

No community (government) participation by this Garner family could be found.  Also no indication of large land ownership or service occupations could be found.  On this basis, I would place this Garner family in the Class Structure Level Three, ordinary planters, lower-level land owners, and lower-level service providers.  (See Section IV, Culture, Subsection 2, Class Structure for an explanation of my class structure levels.)

 

Perhaps John Cralle (1724-1778) marriage to Spelman Garner (1740-1771) reflects this Level three class position of the Garners.  During the 1600s and 1700s, marriages were predominantly between individuals of the same class.  If the Garner family were in the class structure three (ordinary planters, lower-level land owners, and lower-level service providers) (as I am suggesting they were), this would indicate lower levels of land ownership and lower income levels as a farmer.  That John Cralle marries Spelman Garner might suggest that John was more similar to the Garner family in land ownership (assuming my assumption about the Garner family class level is correct) and therefore both John and Spelman were more similar than different in class, and class difference would not be a reason not to marry.  If this were the case, than an explanation exists for why Thomas Hull Cralle (1766-1815), John and Spelman’s son, might decide to migrate to Halifax County  – because he had insufficient land in the Northern Neck to obtain the income he desired and relocating to Halifax County would offer opportunities for more land and more income.  Land was probably more available at cheaper prices in Halifax County than in the Northern Neck in the late 1700s, early 1800s.

 

8.  Washington.   My great grandfather’s (Charles A. Jenkins; 1850-1927) ancestor link to the Northern Neck is through his mother (Rosalie O. Carter Jenkins – 1818-1853), who was a descendant of Elizabeth (Betty) Lewis (1765-1830), Rosalie’s grandmother.   Elizabeth (Betty) Lewis’s grandfather was Augustine Washington (1694-1743), born in Westmoreland County and died in Stafford County.   Augustine’s ancestors who were born and/or died in the Northern Neck included:   John Washington (1631-1677);  Lawrence Washington (1659-1698); Anne Pope (1639-1668); and Nathaniel Pope (1603-1660).

 

John Washington (1631-1677) arrived in the Northern Neck as a crew member on a ship coming from England.   Nathaniel Pope (1603-1660), who was a Westmoreland County resident,  took a liking to John, helping him, which  lead to John remaining.   In this process, John met Anne, Nathaniel Pope’s daughter, and married her.  Nathaniel reportedly gave John and Anne 700 acres on Mattox Creek in Westmoreland County.  

 

Nathaniel Pope was one of the first Northern Neck settlers in the 1640s.  He was an early county commissioner.  Pope’s Creek in Westmoreland County is named after him.   Prior to living in the Northern Neck, Nathaniel lived in the Maryland Colony (he appears in a Maryland 1637 census).

 

One of the first land grants given by the new Northern Neck owners was to John Washington, who obtained 5,000 acres in Westmoreland County.  (The new Northern Neck owners were those  English lords who helped King Charles II regain the English throne and, in return, were given the Northern Neck land.)   Some of George Washington’s Mount Vernon property consisted of these 5,000 acres. 

 

John Washington’s first house on his land was a small 20 foot by 40 foot, on posts driven into the ground; typical of most houses built at the time as temporary shelter (10 to 20 years).  (See Section V, Property, Subsection 3, Houses, for more on 1600s and 1700s houses.)

 

John, who was an officer in the militia, lead an attack that slaughtered several Indians in Maryland; Indians that may not have been the intended guilty party. This attack was one of a few events that escalated into Bacon’s Rebellion (see Section IX, Security, Subsection 1600s, for more on Bacon’s Rebellion).  John also, for a time, was the county’s Naval Officer, with responsibility for Potomac River naval issues.  He also served as vestryman and a coroner.

 

At the time of his death, John Washington is believed to have owed more than 10,000 acres.  He sponsored several indentured servants to the Northern Neck.

 

John and Anne had Lawrence Washington in 1659.

 

Lawrence Washington (1659-1698), John and Anne’s son, and inheritor of John’s wealth, married Mildred Warner (1671-1701) in 1686.  Mildred Warner was a member of a well-to-do Warner family in Gloucester County, on the middle neck, between the Rappahannock and York Rivers.  Mildred Warner was the daughter of Augustine Warner II (1642-1681) and Mildred Reade (1643-1686).    Augustine Warner II was the son of Augustine Warner I (1610-1674).   Augustine Warner I immigrated from the Norfolk, England area to Gloucester County. 

 

Mildred Reade was the daughter of George Reade (1608-1674) and Elizabeth Martiau (1615-1686).   George Reade immigrated from the Hampshire area of England around 1637 and settled in York County, Virginia.  As a militia member, he fought against Indian uprisings, attaining the rank of colonel.  George, at various times, was the Acting Governor of the Virginia Colony (1638-39), the Secretary of the Colony, and a member of the Virginia Council and the House of Burgesses.

 

Elizabeth Martiau was the daughter of Nicholas Martiau (1591-1657).   Nicholas, originally from France and a Huguenot, initially came to the Virginia Colony as a military engineer.  He help build forts at Jamestown and was a captain in the militia.  He also was a justice and a member of the House of Burgesses. 

 

Lawrence Washington and Mildred Reade Washington have Augustine Washington  (1694-1743) in Westmoreland County in 1694.

 

Augustine Washington marries Mary Ball (1708-1789) in1731.  See Balls, at the beginning of this section, for more on the Ball family.

 

Augustine and Mary Ball Washington’s daughter Elizabeth Washington (1733-1797) marries Fielding Lewis (1725-1781) in 1750.

 

The Elizabeth Washington-Fielding Lewis marriage connects the Washington and Ball families of the Northern Neck with the Warner and Lewis families in Gloucester County.   Fielding Lewis was the grandson of John Lewis II (1669-1725) and Elizabeth Warner (1672-1719) of Gloucester County.  Elizabeth Warner was the daughter of Augustine Warner II (1642-1681), also of Gloucester County.  And, as written about above, Lawrence Washington (1659-1698), Elizabeth Washington’s grandfather was married to Mildred Warner (1671-1701), daughter of Augustine Warner II.  So Elizabeth Washington and Fielding Lewis had grandmothers (Elizabeth Warner and Mildred Warner) who were sisters, making Elizabeth and Fielding second cousins.   

 

The Washington-Lewis marriage and the intra-marriages between their ancestors prior to their marriage is a good example of the 1700s social patterns that tended to exist in the Northern Neck, with members of the top social class marrying within their class.

 

Based on the above, I would place the Washington family in the Class Structure Level One, Large Land Owners.  (See Section IV, Culture, Subsection 2, Class Structure for an explanation of my class structure levels.)